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Law of Natural Justice – Judicial Review & Writs

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Book NameLaw of Natural Justice – Judicial Review & Writs
Author
D P Mittal
PublisherCommercial Law Publishers
EditionAug-23
ISBN9789356032859
Pages696
SKU: TG-CO-LONJJRW Categories: , , ,

Description

Grab a Flat 27% Discount on Law of Natural Justice – Judicial Review & Writs by D P Mittal, published by Commercial Law Publishers. The Aug-2023 edition (ISBN: 9789356032859) covers everything you need to know about Law of Natural Justice, with 696 pages

Chapter 1—Introduction
1.1 Constitution is the supreme law..1
1.2 Law – Meaning and concept..1
1.3 Law – Functions..2
1.4 Sources of law..3
1.5 Law cannot stand still..4
1.6 Doctrine of laissez faire yielding to welfare state..6
1.7 Law-Recent trends..7
1.8 Public and private law..7
1.8.1 Public functions..8
1.8.2 Public authority..9
1.8.3 Public authority – Exercise of power informed by reason and guided by public interest..10
1.8.4 Public duty- Nolan seven principles..11
1.8.5 Public duty performance..12
1.8.6 Public servant – tortuous acts..12
1.9 Administration of law governed by fundamental policy of law..13
1.10 Administrative law..13
1.11 Administrative procedure to be fair, just and reasonable..16

Chapter 2—Rule of Law
2.1 Introduction..17
2.2 Concept and meaning..18
2.3 Dicey Three Principles..19
2.3.1 Supremacy of Law..20
2.3.2 Equality before Law..21
2.3.3 Predominance of Legal spirit..22
2.4 Rule of law – Differently described..23
2.4.1 Rule according to law..24
2.4.2 Rule under the law..24
2.4.3 Rule according to higher law..24
2.4.4 Higher law linked to principle of justice..25
2.5 Rule of law- Indian Constitution..25
2.6 Rule of law – Characteristics..28
2.6.1 Law – written, well defined and precise principles..28
2.6.2 Regularity, predictability and certainty..29
2.6.3 Rule of law and ex post facto Law..31
2.6.4 Procedural safeguards..31
2.6.5 Rule of law – absence of arbitrary power..32
2.7 Judicial Review and Rule of law..33
2.8 Administrative authority – Acting fairly, impartially and reasonably..35

Chapter 3—Judicial and Administrative Functions of the State
3.1 Introduction..38
3.2 Legislative, executive and the judicial functions of the State..38
3.3 Legislature power to make law is not absolute..40
3.4 Executive power is not absolute..40
3.5 Executive functions of the State..41
3.6 Administration of law..41
3.7 Administrative law – relationship between government and the people..41
3.7.1 Administrative law- Evolution..42
3.7.2 Administrative law – Sources..43
3.8 Administrative law – Scope..44
3.9 Administrative law and principle of governance..45
3.9.1 Delegation of powers..45
3.9.2 Procedural safeguards..46
3.9.3 Natural justice..47
3.9.4 Judicial review..47
3.9.5 Tort liability..48
3.10 Judicial act..48
3.10.1 Quasi-judicial act..48
3.10.2 Judicial, quasi-judicial and administrative acts..50
3.11 Judicial decisions made according to law..51
3.12 Administration of justice is the State function – Courts..52
3.13 Judicial power divided between courts and tribunals..53
3.14 Court – meaning..54
3.14.1 Transfer of judicial functions..56
3.14.2 Court – Tests..58
3.15 Tribunal – meaning..59
3.15.1 Tribunal power and judicial power – Distinction..62
3.15.2 Administrative Tribunal and quasi – judicial Tribunal..63
3.15.3 Tribunal is not a court..65
3.15.4 Trapping of court..66
3.15.5 Tribunal members are not judges holding judicial office..70
3.16 Tribunal – Evidence Act not applicable..71
3.16.1 Tribunal not bound by Code of Civil Procedure..72
3.16.2 Res – judicata – not applicable..73
3.16.3 Estoppel not applicable..73
3.16.4 Power of a civil Court- Circumstances..74
3.16-5 Issuing Commission..75
3.17 Tribunal set up under different Acts- not court..76
3.17.1 Custom Officer – not a court..76
3.17.2 Income-tax officer – not a court..76
3.17.3 Settlement Commission – Not a court..77
3.17.4 Revenue Officer- not a court..77
3.17.5 Sales tax Officer – not a court..78
3.17.6 Commission of Inquiry – Not a court..78
3.17.7 National Consumer Disputes Redressel Commission – not a court..78
3.17.8 Lokayukt is not a court..79
3.17.9 Labour Courts..79

Chapter 4—Judicial Review – General Principles
4.1 Introduction..80
4.1A Judicially reviewable decisions..80
4.1B Decision or action- Adjudicative disposition..82
4.2 Judicial review – meaning and concept..82
4.2.1 According to Law..83
4.3 Judicial review integral part of the Constitution..84
4.4 Judicial review and justiciability – distinction..86
4.5 Judicial review and appeal..86
4.6 Judicial decision not subject to judicial review..89
4.7 Judicial review- purpose..89
4.8 Judicial review- Functions..90
4.9 Judicial review- Scope..92
4.10 Sovereign and some other certain acts outside the scope of  Judicial review..94
4.10.1 Policy decision of Government..95
4.10.2 Legislative policy..96
4.10.3 Administrative policy..98
4.10.4 Economic policy..100
4.10.5 Policy for administration and decision of State..102
4.10.6 Political questions outside judicial review..103
4.10.7 Change of policy defeating legitimate expectation..104
4.10.8 Government guidelines to safeguard public interest..105
4.10.9A Public interest..106
4.10.9B Public purpose..107
4.11 Judicial review – State actions if they relate to public law domain..108
4.11.1 Judicial review – In the field of contractual powers by Government bodies..108
4.12 Judicial review- Judicial activism..109
4.13 Judicial review – Limitation..111
4.13.1 Judicial review – Not to restrain authorities from exercising statutory powers..111
4.13.2 Judicial restraint..111
4.13.3 Judicial restraint means judicial respect..115
4.14 Judicial Review -Broad principles..115

Chapter 5—Jurisdiction-Lack of, Nullity, Illegality Irregularity
5.1 Introduction..118
5.2 Jurisdiction – meaning..118
5.2.1 Jurisdiction -want, excess or abuse of..120
5.3 Nullity, illegality and irregularity are the various consequences of error..121
5.4 Nullity, meaning of..122
5.4.1 Nullity, when occurs..122
5.4.2 Nullity of the proceeding from the stage when illegality supervened ..122
5.5 Illegality, meaning of..124
5.5.1 Illegality, when occurs..124
5.6 Irregularity, meaning of..125
5.6.1 Irregularity, when occurs..125
5.7 Illegality and irregularity, distinction..125
5.8 Nullity and irregularity, distinction..125
5.9 Jurisdiction- Inherent, exercise and invoking of..126
5.10 Inherent lack of jurisdiction..127
5.10.1 Jurisdiction – Inherent lack of, objection..130
5.11 Jurisdiction – Ultra vires statute..130
5.12 Jurisdiction – Improper constitution of Tribunal..130
5.13 Jurisdiction – Subject-matter..130
5.14 Jurisdiction – Lack of During the course of proceedings..131
5.15 Jurisdictional facts and conditions first determined before determining the actual issue..132
5.15.1 Finding of fact reviewed if such findings are necessary for assumption of jurisdiction..132
5.16 Jurisdiction – Error of jurisdiction and error in the exercise..132
5.16.1 Erroneous decision on limitation or res judicata is a jurisdictional error and not an error within jurisdiction..133
5.16.2 An order with jurisdiction exercised wrongly is not a nullity, and thus operative till corrected..134
5.17 Jurisdiction – An order without, is a nullity..134
5.18 A null and void order is operative till it is declared void..135
5.19 Jurisdiction – Not affected by repeal or amendment of a provision..136
5.20 Nullity, illegality and irregularity Income-tax Act, 1961..137
5.21 Illegality, irrationality and procedural impropriety [Council of Civil Service Unions]..138
5.22 Illegality – Decision contravening or exceeding the terms of the power..140
5.23 According to law..142
5.23.1 Error of law..144
5.24 Flagrant violation of natural justice..145
5.25 Perversity..146
5.26 Irrationality..147
5.26.1 Rationality v. Reasonableness..150
5.26.2 Reason – foundation of all laws..151
5.26.3 Irrationality – unreasonableness (Wednesbury principle)..152
5.26.4 4Irrationality – Legal unreasonableness (beyond Wednesbury unreasonableness)..154
5.26.5 Arbitrary or capricious equivalent to Wednesbury unreasonableness..156
5.26.6 Wednesbury test – not a satisfactory test..156
5.26.7 Reasonableness other than Wednesbury principles..158
5.26.8 Reasonableness also constitutional requirement..159
5.27 Procedural Impropriety..159
5.27.1 Fairness – doctrine of..160
5.27.2 Fair play in action..161
5.27.3 Failure to observe procedural rules..162
5.26.4 Power to do a thing in a certain way must be done in that way..163
5.27.5 What cannot be done directly cannot be done indirectly..163
5.27.6 When law commands a thing to be done, it authorizes the performance of whatever necessary for executing the command..164
5.27.7 Duty to perform- reasonable time..164

Chapter 6—Judicial Review – Judicial Control of Administrative Discretion
6.1 Introduction..165
6.2 Judicial review – A mode for the court to exercise control on proper exercise of discretionary powers..166
6.3 Judicial review – Directed against the decision-making process and not against the decision..167
6.4 Discretion – some concepts..168
6.4.1 Executive functions that are not ministerial are discretionary..168
6.5 Discretion – meaning..169
6.6 Discretion coupled with duty..171
6.7 Discretion-capable of abuse and not immune from judicial reviewability..172
6.8 Judicial review – Scope and parameters of..174
6.8.1 Judicial review – Courts do not countenance arbitrary power and unfettered discretion..175
6.9 Judicial review – Failure to exercise discretion..175
6.10 Judicial review – Excess or abuse of discretionary power..176
6.10.1 Mala fide use of power..177
6.10.1A ‘Malice in law’/malice in fact..178
6.10.1B Mala fide – meaning..178
6.10.1C Mala fide charge must be proved..179
6.10.1D Fraudulent exercise of power – inference..180
6.11 Exercise of discretion – grounds for challenge of..181
6.12 Misuse in bad faith..181
6.13 Excess or abuse of power – Overstepping limits or defeating the provisions of the Act..182
6.13.1 Breach of representation may not amount to abuse of power..183
6.14 Excess or abuse of power- Situations giving rise to..183
6.14.1 Violation of the statutory provisions..183
6.14.2 Authority must not act unfairly or unreasonably, but act according to law..186
6.15 Summing up..187

Chapter 7—Natural Justice – Concept and Features
7.1 Natural justice- A concept..189
7.2 Participatory justice..191
7.3 Not justice natural among men..191
7.4 In aid of Legal justice..192
7.5 Not statutory rules..192
7.6 ‘Natural justice’ not capable of static and precise definition..193
7.7 Not imprisoned in the straight-jacket or a cast-iron formula..194
7.8 Not embodied rules..195
7.9 Operates in area not covered by law validly made..196
7.10 Natural justice – Aims..198
7.10.1 Essence..199
7.10.2 Natural justice – ensures fairness of procedure..200
7.11 Natural justice- Ingredients..200
7.12 Features..201
7.13 Limitations..202
7.14 Non-application to legislative act..202
7.15 Exceptions..203
7.16 Presumptive implications – Implicit in every decision making function..204
7.17 Branch of public law..205
7.18 Guiding factor in administrative law..206
7.19 Administrative law-Quasi-judicial and administrative enquiries..206

Chapter 8 Natural Justice – Fair play and Fair hearing
8.1 What is natural justice..208
8.2 Natural justice means fairness..209
8.3 What constitutes fairness..210
8.4 What fairness achieves..211
8.5 Fair play and fair hearing..211
8.5.1 Fair trial..212
8.6 Fair play means acting fairly..213
8.6.1 Duty to act fairly- A constitutional requirement..215
8.7 Fair hearing-Procedural fairness..216
8.7.1 Fair hearing – Essentials..217
8.8 Fairness in decision making..218
8.8.1 Fairness all stages of decision – making..218
8.9 Fair hearing necessary even if something obvious..220
8.9.1 Useless formality theory..220
8.10 Fair hearing denied at initial stage not cured at appellate stage..225
8.11 Fair hearing – Departmental proceedings..225
8.11.1 Principles – Summing up..227

Chapter 9—Audi Alteram Partem
9.1 Introduction..230
9.2 Audi alterampaterm-Hear the other side..230
9.3 Various aspects..233
9.4 Compliance- categories..234
9.5 Injects justice into law..234
9.6 Constitutionally protected right..235
9.7 Two facets -intrinsic and institutional (constitutional)..237
9.8 Right of hearing, even if not provided..238
9.9 Exception – No hearing..239
9.9.1 Useless formality theory..243
9.10 Post decisional hearing..243
9.11 Summary judgment..245
9.12 audi alteram partem – Principles..245
9.13 Notice..246
9.13.1 Tentative and prima facie conclusions..248
9.13.2 Premeditation..248
9.13.3 Issued even if no answer possible..248
9.13.4 Essential requirements..249
9.13.5 Precise and unambiguous..249
9.13.6 Effective and reasonable..250
9.14 Adequate notice..250
9.14.1 Adequate notice – requirements..250
9.15 Appropriate opportunity..251
9.15.1 Opportunity real and effective..253
9.15.2 Reasonable opportunity..254
9.15.3 Reasonable opportunity -Characteristics..255
9.15.4 Examination and cross examination..255
9.15.4A Cross examination not allowed if situation demands..256
9.15.4B Cross-examination not allowed when facts not in dispute or no prejudice caused..256
9.15.4C Adjournment -Failure to accede amounts to denial of natural justice..257
9.15.4D Unfairness from mistake of advisers is not mistake of the decision – making authority..258
9.15.4E Fair consideration of the explanation..259
9.16 Personal (oral) hearing..259
9.17 Audi alteram partem – effect of non observance..260
9.17.1 Audi alteram partem non observance – order void/voidable..260
9.17.2 Violation of the principle as such or violation of its facet..262
9.17.3 Flagrant violation results in nullity..262

Chapter 10—Bias – Nemo Debet Esse Judex in Propria Causa
10.1 Introduction..264
10.2 Fair hearing by an impartial tribunal – A right..264
10.3 ‘nemojudex in causasua’..265
10.3.1 Three maxims..266
10.3.2 Judge – Free from bias..266
10.4 Bias..266
10.4.1 Total absence of preconception in judge mind not possible..267
10.4.2 Relationship, interest or attitude..267
10.4.3 Predates decision..268
10.4.4 Bias and unfairness..268
10.4.5 Kinds..268
10.4.6 Pecuniary interest and prejudice- Distinction..269
10.4.7 Order vitiated..270
10.5 No man shall be a judge in his own cause..271
10.5.1 Interest..272
10.5.2 Automatic disqualification..272
10.5.3 Amount of interest not relevant..273
10.5.4 Shareholder..273
10.5.5 De-minimis exception..274
10.5.6 Length of time..275
10.5.7 Prejudice..276
10.5.8 Promotion of a cause..277
10.5.9 Pinochet Ugarte case..278
10.6 Justice not only be done, but manifestly seen to be done..280
10.6.1 Reasonable apprehension..282
10.6.2 Real likelihood of bias – Test..283
10.6.3 Real danger test- English courts..285
10.6.4 Australian courts..287
10.6.5 South African court..288
10.6.6 Nature of Tribunal..289
10.6.7 Reasonable man standard..290
10.6.8 Hypothetical reasonable man..293
10.6.9 Bias not inferred merely on suspicion..293
10.16.10 Suspicion and prejudgment..296
10.7 Existence of bias – Situations..297
10.8 Duty to disclosure..299
10.9 Waiver..300
10.10 Doctrine of necessity..302
10.11 Bias – Opinion or reports..303

Chapter 11—Speaking Order
11.1 Introduction..304
11.2 Speaking order..304
11.2.1 easons – ensures transparency and fairness in decision making.305
11.3 Speaking order – An ingredient of audi alteram partem..306
11.4 Order of administrative or quasi-judicial authority must speak..306
11.5 Requisites of decisions..307
11.6 Duty to record reasons..308
11.6.1 Implied duty..308
11.6.2 Expressed duty..310
11.6.3 Pervasive duty..310
11.7 Transparency – ensures people knowing how, why and what for the decision taken..310
11.8 Rationale – Failure to give reasons amounts to denial of justice..311
11.9 Speaking order – why necessary..313
11.9.1 Fairness..314
11.9.2 Application of mind..315
11.9.3 Prevents unconscious unfairness..316
11.9.4 Appearance of justice..317
11.9.5 Prevents substitution of reasons..317
11.9.6 Satisfaction to the aggrieved party..317
11.9.7 Gives content and meaning..318
11.9.8 Assistance to Appellate Authority..318
11.10 Reasons to be proper and adequate..321
11.11 Non-recording of reasons- Court Martial cases..322
11.12 Summing up..322

Chapter 12—Legitimate Expectation
12.1 Introduction..324
12.2 Historical development..325
12.3 Concept..326
12.3.1 Meaning..328
12.3.2 Legitimate or reasonable..330
12.3.3 Ingredients..331
12.3.4 Legitimate expectation v. promissory estoppel..332
12.3.5 Scope..333
12.3.6 Consequences..334
12.3.7 Legitimacy..335
12.3.8 Nature of representation..336
12.3.9 Representation in general terms..336
12.3.10 Public interest overrides..336
12.3.11 Change of policy and Wednesbury principle..337
12.3.12 Who can invoke..338
12.3.13 When invoked..338
12.3.14 Mere claim cannot ipso facto give a right..339
12.4 Two aspects..340
12.4.1 Substantive legitimate expectation..341
12.4.2 Procedural legitimate expectation..342
12.4.2A Navjoti’s case..343
12.4.2B Food Corporation’s case..343
12.4.2C GCHQ’s case..344
12.5 Right of Fair hearing..344
12.5.1 Duty of authorities to act fairly..344
12.5.2 Non-arbitrariness (Article 14)..345
12.5.3 Full disclosure..346
12.6 Judicial review..346
12.6.1 Judicial review and standing..348

Chapter 13—Promissory Estoppel
13.1 Introduction..350
13.2 Aims to secure justice and equity..350
13.3 Historical development – England..351
13.4 Historical development – India..356
13.5 Estoppel..360
13.6 Equitable estoppel..361
13.7 Promissory estoppel..361
13.7.1 Scope..362
13.7.2 Legislature, Government or public authority – not bound..367
13.7.3 Substantive law..369
13.7.4 Qualifications..369
13.7.5 Limitations..369
13.7.6 Limitation – Public law..370
13.8 Ingredients..371
13.9 Promise for the future (promissory statement)..371
13.9.1 Not a contract..372
13.10 Altering position..372
13.10.1 Meaning..372
13.10.2 Elasticity..373
13.10.3 Detriment..373
13.10.4 Detriment not required to be proved..374
13.10.5 Resilience depends on equity..374
13.11 Legal right..374
13.12A Legal relationship..375
13.13 Promissory estoppel and Service laws..376

Chapter 14—Burden of Proof
14.1 Introduction..377
14.2 Burden of proof-meaning..377
14.3 Evidence..377
14.3.1 Evidence – Kinds of..378
14.3.2 Evidence – Statement of a witness..378
14.3.3 Evidence – Circumstantial..379
14.3.4 Evidence – Hearsay..379
14.3.5 Evidence – Evaluation..379
14.4 Fact..381
14.5 Proof..381
14.5A Proof of allegation..382
14.6 Presumption – Meaning of..382
14.7 Presumption – A rule of evidence..382
14.7.1 Presumption – Kinds of..383
14.8 Burden of proof – Aspects..383
14.9 Burden of proof – As a matter of law..383
14.10 Presumption of fact..383
14.11 Presumption of law..384
14.11.1 Presumption – Rebuttable..384
14.11.2 Presumption – Irrebuttable (conclusive proof)..385
14.12 Burden of proof in civil cases – Preponderance of probabilities..385
14.13 Burden of proof – Mala fide acts..386
14.14 Burden of proof – Income-tax Act..390

Chapter 15—Review and Rectification
15.1 Introduction..392
15.2 Review..392
15.2.1 Two distinct characteristics..393
15.3 Procedural review..393
15.4 Review under Civil Procedure Code..394
15.4.1 Scope..395
15.4.2 ‘actus curiae neminem gravabit’..395
15.4.3 Clerical, arithmetical mistakes, accidental slips..396
15.4.4 Accidental slip or omission..397
15.4.5 Illustrations..397
15.5 Error apparent from record..398
15.5.1 Mistake..398
15.5.2 Apparent..399
15.5.3 Record..400
15.6 Power mandatory..401
15.7 ex debito justitiae..401
15.8 Recalling order..402
15.8.1 Inherent lack of jurisdiction..404
15.8.2 Fraud..404
15.8.2A Fraud in public law (administrative law)..405
15.8.3 Non service of notice..405

Chapter 16—Revision
16.1 Introduction..408
16.2 Review and Revision- distinction..408
16.3 Revision and appeal – Distinction..408
16.4 Revisional power..409
16.5 Parameters..410
16.5.1 According to law..412
16.5.2 Legality, regularity, propriety..413
16.6 Revision under the Income-tax Act..413

Chapter 17—Appeal
17.1 Introduction..415
17.2 Appeal – meaning..415
17.2.1 Different from suit..417
17.2.2 Appeal preferring..418
17.2.3 Effective appeal..418
17.2.4 Defective appeal..419
17.2.5 Subject of appeal..419
17.2.6 In the nature of rehearing..419
17.2.7 Time limit..420
17.2.8 Out of time..420
17.2.9 Continuation of original proceedings..421
17.3 Appeal from any order..422
17.3.1 Order..422
17.3.2 Person aggrieved..422
17.3.3 Cross appeal/Cross-objection..423
17.4 Right to appeal..424
17.4.1 Liberal construction..426
17.4.2 Fulfilment of conditions..427
17.4.3 Substantive right..427
17.4.4 Amending Act does not affect..429
17.4.5 Repealing Act does not affect..430
17.4.6 Change of forum..431
17.4.7 Period of limitation..432
17.5 First appeal..432
17.5.1 Grounds urged and argued..433
17.5.2 Judgment- requirements..433
17.5.3 Powers of appellate court..434
17.5.4 Time period for disposal..435
17.5.5 Assistance from lower jurisdiction..436
17.6 Second Appeal..436
17.6.1 Finding..438
17.6.2 Question of fact..439
17.6.3 Question of law..440
17.6.4 Question of fact or question of law..440
17.6.5 Perverse finding..441
17.6.6 Question of fact becomes aquestion of law..442
17.6.7 Judicial review..444
17.6.8 Substantial question of law..445
17.6.8A Tests..445
17.6.8B Precedent condition for admission..446
17.6.9 Additional evidence..447
17.7 Appeal to Supreme Court..449
17.7.1 Not ordinary appeal..450
17.7.2 Power discretionary..451
17.7.3 Exercise of jurisdiction – Two stages..452
17.7.4 Dismissal does not mean approval of decision appealed against..452
17.7.5 Dismissal of SLP – No merger..453
17.8 Doctrine of merger..455
17.8.1 Conditions of merger..456
17.8.2 Review jurisdiction and merger..457
17.8.3 Exception..458
17.8.4 What merges – the operative part..459
17.8.5 Limitations..460

Chapter 18—Writs
18.1 Introduction..463
18.2 Writs – High Court power..463
18.3 Historical background..465
18.4 Writ – meaning..467
18.5 Writs and Judicial review..467
18.6 Writs Public law remedy..469
18.6.1 Instrumentalities of State..469
18.6.2 Private body discharging public functions..470
18.6.3 Contractual matters..471
18.6.4 Writs – Contractual rights/disputes involving constitutional or legal issues..472
18.7 Writs – scope..473
18.7.1 Original (constitutional) jurisdiction..475
18.8 Power of writ and of superintendence..475
18.8.1 Distinction between Articles 226 and 227..476
18.9 Power of superintendence – Article 227..477
18.9.1 Article 227 – Scope..477
18.10 Power of writ – Article 226..480
18.10.1 Nature of duty and not the form of body relevant..481
18.10.2 Any Person or Authority..483
18.11 Writs in the nature of..484
18.12 Limitations..484
18.13 Writs – Kinds..487
18.13.1 Distinguishing features..488
18.13.2 Habeas corpus..488
18.13.3 Quo warranto..489
18.13.4 Prohibition..490

Chapter 19—Writ of Mandamus
19.1 Mandamus – To command and execute..491
19.2 Mandamus – Scope..492
19.2.1 Other writs – Distinction..494
19.3 Mandamus not taken away by finality of order..495
19.4 Mandamus not a substitute for regular trial..495
19.5 Mandamus not applicable to contractual rights..495
19.6.1 Mandamus not appellate jurisdiction..495
19.6.2 Mandamus meant to enforce law and not to correct practice and procedure..496
19.6.3 Mandamus meant not to empower High Court to assume power of statutory authority..496
19.6.4 Mandamus not to enforce a claim of uncertain merit..496
19.6.5 Mandamus not issued on show cause notice..496
19.7 Mandamus – Cannot be denied..497
19.8 Mandamus – Admissibility..497
19.9 Alternative remedies..498
19.9.1 Mandamus – Adequacy and sufficiency of remedies meaning..500
19.9.2 Mandamus – Remedy not adequate and sufficient if appeal is admitted only if amount of tax is deposited..501
19.9.3 Alternative remedy oppressive and onerous..502
19.9.4 Mandamus – Even when efficacious remedy is available..502
19.9.5 Instances..504
19.9.6 Taxation and election cases..504
19.10 Conduct of parties..505
19.11 Laches (inordinate delay)..505
19.12 Mandamus –Subordinate Legislation..507
19.13 Circumstances – summing up..508

Chapter 20—Writs – Certiorari and Prohibition
20.1 Introduction..509
20.2 Historical development..509
20.3 Writ Prohibition..509
20.4 Certiorari-Object..510
20.5 Certiorari – Judicial superintendence, in the nature of revisional jurisdiction..511
20.6 Certiorari – Alternative remedy..511
20.7 Certiorari and Prohibition – Scope..511
20.8 Summing up..515
20.9 Jurisdictional error and want of jurisdiction..516
20.9.1 Patent error..517
20.10 Show cause notice..518
20.11 Certiorari and appeal..519

Chapter 21—Judicial Review and Ousting of Civil Court Jurisdiction
21.1 Introduction..520
21.2 Exclusionary clause – Justification..520
21.3 Exclusion not readily inferred..522
21.4 Tests for intended exclusion – Adequacy and sufficiency of remedies..522
21.5 Principles for exclusion..524
21.6 Limitations..525
21.7 Civil court jurisdiction not completely ousted- order subject to judicial review under article 226 or 227..525

Chapter 22—High Court Inherent Powers
22.1 Introduction..528
22.2 Inherent power – Meaning and necessity..528
22.3 Inherent power – And ex debito justitiae..528
22.4 Inherent power and implied power – Distinction..528
22.5 Inherent and revisional power – Distinction..529
22.6 Inherent power – Scope of..529
22.7 Inherent powers – Restrictions and conditionalities..530
22.8 Power of the High Court under section 151 of the Civil Procedure Code..530
22.9 Inherent power of the court to review its own decision..532
22.10 Inherent power Under section 482 of the Code of Criminal Procedure..532
22.11 Inherent power under section 482 – Scope..532
22.12 Inherent power – Quashing of proceeding to prevent manifest injustice..533
22.13 Inherent power to quash proceeding – If ingredients of offence are absent..533
22.13.1 Inherent power – There is no offence..534
22.13.2 Inherent power – Offence lacking legal evidence..534

Chapter 23—Interpretative Principles
23.1 Introduction..535
23.2 Interpretation of statute, meaning of..535
23.3 Interpretation- General principles ..535
23.4 Statute not a divine revelation..537
23.4.1 Ambiguity..537
23.5 Intention of Legislature..537
23.6 Statutory text and intention of the Parliament..538
23.7 Statutory construction is regarded an exercise in legal reasoning..539
23.8 Rules of interpretation..539
23.9 Purposive Interpretation..542
23.9.1 Purposive and literal approach combined..545
23.10 Principle of Interpretation, summing up..546
23.11 Updating construction..547
23.12 Constitutionality of law – Principles..547
23.13 Presumption in favour of constitutionality..549
23.14 Casus omissus and ex visceribus actus..550
23.15 Strict interpretation..551
23.15.1 Taxing statutes..551
23.15.2 Tax avoidance..551
23.15.3 Penal provisions..552
23.15.4 Provision relating to Limitation..553
23.15.5 Exception..553
23.15.6 Legal fictions..554
23.15.7 Deeming provision..554
23.16 Liberal Interpretation..555
23.16.1 Welfare provisions..555
23.16.2 Beneficial provisions..555
23.16.3 Machinery provision..556
23.16.4 Exemption provisions..556
23.16.5 Liberal and strict interpretation..556
23.17 Interpretation – Internal aids..557
23.18 Preamble..557
23.19 Definition..558
23.19.1 Functions of a definition..558
23.19.2 Interpretation clause used if the words ambiguous or equivocal.559
23.19.3 Definition not meant to be exhaustive..559
23.20 Means..559
23.21 Includes..559
23.21.1 “Includes” may also have exhaustive meaning..560
23.22 “Means and includes”..560
23.22.2 “Means” and “includes” – Distinguishing features..561
23.23 Unless the context otherwise requires..561
23.24 Referential definition..562
23.25 Proviso..563
23.25.1 Interpretation of a proviso..563
23.25.2 Provided further..564
23.25.3 Proviso, whether refers to the last or all paras in a series of paragraphs..565
23.26 Explanation..565
23.26.1 Explanation, interpretation..566
23.27 Exception..567
23.28 Legal fiction and deeming provisions..567
23.29 Marginal notes and headings..568
23.30 Setting of the Act..568
23.30.1 Punctuation..568
23.31 Other expressions..569
23.32 Notwithstanding..569
23.33 Subject to..570
23.34 In accordance with..570
23.35 In addition to..570
23.36 In derogation of..570
23.37 In connection with..570
23.38 In (by) writing..570
23.39 In relation to..571
23.40 Pertaining to..571
23.41 Incidental..571
23.42 Incident..572
23.43 In respect of – With respect to..572
23.44 Within..572
23.45 In and within..572
23.46 Namely, or that is to say..572
23.47 Liable..572
23.48 Under the Act..573
23.49 Otherwise..573
23.50 Without prejudice..573
23.51 As the case may be..574
23.52 So far as may be..574
23.53 Similar..574
23.54 Like..574
23.55 Having regard to..574
23.56 Or..575
23.57 “And” and “Or”..575
23.58 At any time..575
23.59 “During” and “In all”..575
23.60 “A”..575
23.61 “An”..575
23.62 “The”..575
23.63 “Any”..575
23.64 Where, when if,..576
23.65 Etc..576
23.66 After..576
23.67 Hereafter..577
23.68 Mandatory or directory/Meaning..577
23.68.1 Whether a provision is mandatory or directory..577
23.68.2 Link between the broad principle of the statute and object of the particular provision is important..577
23.68.3 Consequences of non-compliance of mandatory and directory provisions..578
23.68.4 “May”-..578
23.68.5 “Shall”..578
23.68.6 “Shall” and “may” interchangeable –..578
23.68.7 Simultaneous use of “may” and “shall”..579
23.68.8 Negative or prohibitive word mandatory..579
23.68.9 Time limit for performance of a duty rarely mandatory..579
23.68.10 Provisions relating to avoidance of public mischief not mandatory..579
23.68.11 Procedural Rule not mandatory..580
23.68.12 Mode of performing a duty has to be mandatorily followed..580
23.68.13 Conditions of a provision should be mandatorily followed..580
23.69 Guidelines..581
23.70 Schedule..581
23.71 External aids..582
23.72 Dictionary..583
23.72.1 Subject and object rules..583
23.72.2 Reference to other Acts..584
23.72.3 Words in popular sense..584
23.72.4 Words – General public..585
23.73 Process of legislation..585
23.73.1 History of legislation..586
23.73.2 Statement of objects and reasons..586
23.73.3 Speech of Minister..586
23.73.4 Parliamentary Materials..587
23.74 Contemporanea expositio (Administrative instructions)..588
23.75 Special law v. General law..590
23.75.1 Special law v. Special law..590

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