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Statutory Interpretation

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Book Name: Statutory Interpretation

Author : D P Mittal

EDN.: 1st,  June 2023

ISBN: 9789356033146

PAGES: 368

Description

Book on ‘Statutory Interpretation‘ by D.P. Mittal, the authoritative guide to understanding and applying statutory law. Get a 27% discount for a limited period, along with free shipping. This 1st edition, published in June 2023, provides comprehensive coverage of the principles and techniques of statutory interpretation. With an ISBN of 9789356033146 and 368 pages, this book delves into topics such as the rule of precedents, constitutional validity, general principles of interpretation, contextual interpretation, the golden rule, the mischief rule, and more. Enhance your understanding of statutory interpretation with this valuable resource. Shop now and take advantage of the discount and free shipping offer!

ChapterTopicPage
1Law – Introduction
1.1Law – Meaning1
1.2Kinds of law2
1.3Supreme legislation2
1.4Subordinate legislation2
1.5Referential legislation2
1.6Judge-made law2
2Statutory Law – Supreme Legislation
2.1Supremacy of Parliament4
2.2Power of legislature subject to…4
2.3Taxation, a prerogative of legislature4
Subordinate Legislation
2.4Subordinate legislation – Necessity5
2.4.1Valid delegation of legislative power…6
2.4.2Subordinate legislation – Guidelines6
2.4.3Subordinate legislation – Legislative…8
2.5Subordinate legislation – Extent and…11
2.6Subordinate legislation – Powers of…12
2.7Rules have effect as if enacted in…13
2.8Rules are mandatory13
2.9Rules interpretation14
Referential Legislation
2.10Referential legislation – Convenient…15
2.11Referential legislation – Kinds of16
2.12Referential legislation – Effect of…18
Rag-Bag Legislation OR Composite…
2.13Rag-Bag Legislation – Legislative…19
3Judge-Made Law Rule of Precedents
3.1Legislature – Delegation of…21
3.1.1Judges not only declare but also…22
3.1.2Supreme Court and High Courts’…24
3.2Interpretation is fundamental role…25
3.3Judicial Interpretation to Adapt…25
Precedents – MEANING AND SCOPE
3.4Doctrine of Precedent27
3.4.1Ratio Decidendi28
3.4.2Obiter Dicta31
3.4.3Judicial Dicta32
RULES OF PRECEDENTS
3.5Precedent provides a Guide as to…32
3.6Precedents binding – Reasons33
3.6.1Stare decisis- Long Standing precedents33
3.7Precedents – Guidelines34
EXCEPTIONS TO RULE OF PRECEDENT
3.8Precedent – Decision given in…36
3.9Precedent – followed not mechanically39
3.10Every observation not to be followed40
3.11Precedent – Sub Silentio41
4Law – Constitutional Validity
4.1All laws flow from Constitution44
4.2Constitutionality of provisions -…45
4.2.1Constitution – Interpretation45
4.2.2Aspect doctrine49
4.3Reading down an enactment51
4.3.2Construction to maintain constitutionality52
4.3.3Constitutionality – Presumptions53
4.3.4Constitutionality – Judged from…54
4.4Constitutionality – Subordinate…55
CONSTITUTIONALITY – COMPETENCE OF…
4.5Legislative competence to enact laws…56
4.6Power of legislation and list of…56
4.7Power of Parliament to enact laws…58
4.9Judicial review59
4.10Legislative competence – Pith and…59
4.11Colourable Legislation – Constitutionality61
4.12Competence of Parliament to impose…62
5Interpretation – General Principles
5.1Interpretation/Construction – Meaning63
5.2Statute not drafted with divine prescience63
5.3Statutory construction – an exercise…64
5.4Interpretation – General observations64
5.5Three rules for interpretation67
5.6Rules of construction not the rules…69
5.7Ascertainment of Legislative Intention…71
CONSTRUCTION – SCOPE AND EFFECT…
5.8Rules of construction – Scope and…73
5.9Construction – Internal and external aids75
CONSTRUCTION – STATUTE READ AS…
5.10ex visceribus actus – Within the…76
5.10.1Understanding of real meaning78
5.10.2Statute should be read as a whole…79
5.10.3Textual interpretation should match…80
5.10.4Statute must be read as a whole…81
5.11Summing up – Rules of interpretation…82
5.12Statutory text and intention of…84
6Interpretation of Words – Contextual
6.1Contextual interpretation of words86
6.2Meaning of words be derived from…87
6.3Shorn of context – Words are slippery…89
6.4Context – which it means90
6.5Same word in different enactment91
6.6Same words in different places…92
6.7Words in social welfare legislation93
6.8Words have not only meaning but…93
6.9No word has absolute meaning…94
6.10Words speak for themselves…96
6.11Meaning of sentence may be more…97
7Interpretation – Sententia legis
7.1Sententia legis – The intention…98
7.2Intention of the legislation a…99
7.3Actual and implied intention of…101
7.4Intention gathered from social…102
7.5Primary and secondary statutory…104
8Interpretation – Casus Omissus
8.1Casus omissus107
8.2Casus omissus supplied in case…108
8.3Judges to expound and not legislate…109
9Interpretation – Ongoing Act
9.1Interpretation of Ongoing Act111
9.2Law never reaches consistency as…115
9.3Law cannot remain immutable as…116
9.4Laws used as an instrument of…117
10Interpretation – Literal rule
10.1Literal rule119
10.2Literal construction – when words…121
10.2.1Plain meaning – judicial disagreement122
10.2.2Plain and unambiguous meaning – a…122
10.2.3Plain and unambiguous meaning…123
10.2.4Plain and unambiguous – given effect…123
10.3Literal construction – Corollary…124
10.4Literal rule deviated – in case of…125
10.5Ambiguity – Meaning and scope125
10.6Absurd result126
10.7Ridiculous and harsh is not the…127
10.8Literal rule—Summing up128
10.9Literal interpretation – Not to…129
LITERAL INTERPRETATION – TERMS,…
10.10Literal interpretation – Terms…129
10.11Words of legal import131
10.12Words in a general statute – popular…131
10.13Ordinary and natural meaning of words132
10.14Standard test for ascertaining…133
10.15Expressions used in trade and industries133
10.16Expressions in popular sense…134
10.17Literal or dictionary meaning136
10.18Composite expressions are not to…138
10.19Dictionaries meaning may sometimes…139
10.20ejusdem generis140
10.21Distributive construction140
11Purposive Interpretation vis-à-vis…
11.1Introduction142
11.2Purposive and mischief rule143
11.3Purposive interpretation144
11.4Purposive interpretation to…145
11.5Purposive interpretation – Essence146
11.6Purposive approach means purposive…147
11.7Purposive interpretation – Undue…149
11.8Purposive interpretation not applied…149
11.9Purposive and literal approach combined149
11.10Reading down meaning of words150
11.11Purposive interpretation and tax…153
12Interpretation – Golden rule (Meaning…
12.1Golden Rule – Literal meaning modified155
12.2Words presumed to be correctly and…155
12.3Violence to the language used157
12.4Omissions and gaps supplied158
12.5Meaning of the word may be extended158
12.6Arm Chair Rule – Judges stepping…159
12.7Judicial legislation160
12.8Court’s competence in supplying omissions161
13Interpretation – Mischief Rule (Heydon’s…
13.1Mischief Rule – Heydon’s case164
13.2Ironing out the creases168
14Interpretation – noscitur a sociis…
14.1noscitur a sociis – a word is…170
14.2ejusdem generis173
14.3Genus – Narrower than the words…174
14.4Ejusdem generis – Aid to construction174
14.5ejusdem generis – Non-application…175
15Interpretation – Taxing statute
15.1Interpretation – Taxing Statutes…176
15.2Interpretation of taxing provisions…178
15.3Taxing statutes – Strict Interpretation179
15.4Taxing statutes – Doctrine of equity180
15.5Strict interpretation does not…181
15.6Strict interpretation charging…182
15.6.1Tax not to be charged by inference…184
15.6.2Taxing provision – Construction…185
15.7Tax Avoidance – Strict interpretation186
15.8Penal provisions – Strict interpretation187
15.9Limitation provisions – Strict…192
15.9.1Limitation bars the remedy but…194
15.9.2Limitation cessation or remission…195
15.9.3Proceedings barred by limitation…196
15.10Exception clause – Strict interpretation196
15.11Form or substance of a transaction…198
15.12Doctrine of substance of the transaction200
15.13Form or legality of the transaction203
15.14Doctrine of ‘fiscal nullity’206
16Interpretation – Liberal
16.1Liberal interpretation208
16.2Liberal construction – welfare…208
16.3Liberal interpretation – Beneficial…210
16.4Liberal construction – Exemption…212
16.5Liberal versus literal construction214
16.5.1Literal or liberal construction…214
16.6Liberal construction – to make a…217
17Interpretation – Internal Aids
17.1Internal aids222
INTERPRETATION – PREAMBLE AND TITLE
17.2Preamble222
17.2.1Preamble Key to the understanding…222
17.2.2Preamble – Disregarded where the…224
17.2.3Preamble – Application, two classes…224
17.2.4Preamble followed by a long title224
INTERPRETATION – MARGINAL NOTES FOR HEADINGS
17.3Marginal notes not referred for…224
17.3.1Marginal notes – Legislative and…225
17.3.2Heading is a clue to understanding…225
DEFINITION – PURPOSE AND FUNCTIONS
17.4Definition226
17.5Definition – Types226
17.6Definition – function227
17.7Definition clause – Ordinary…228
17.8Definition clause – Interpretation228
17.9Referential definition230
17.10Referential provision – Interpretation231
17.11“So far as may be, apply”,…233
17.12Definition clause – Some qualifying…233
17.12.1‘Unless the context otherwise requires’234
17.12.2‘In relation to’235
17.12.3‘Means’; ‘includes’236
17.12.4‘Includes and means’ or ‘deems’239
17.12.5‘Deemed’240
17.12.6Purpose240
17.12.7‘For the purpose of’241
17.12.8‘For the purpose of business’241
17.12.9‘Any’242
17.12.10‘Where’, ‘when’, ‘if’, ‘etc.’242
17.12.11‘Hereafter’243
17.12.12‘Wholly’243
17.12.13‘Similar’243
17.12.14‘Liable’243
17.12.15‘As the case may be’243
17.12.16‘So far as may be’243
17.12.17‘Without prejudice’243
17.12.18‘In the prescribed manner’244
17.12.19Notwithstanding244
17.12.19aTwo Non Obstante Clauses—Generalia247
17.12.20Otherwise250
17.12.21Subject to250
17.12.22Namely or “that is to say”251
17.12.23So far as may be, apply251
17.12.24Law for the time being in force252
17.12.25Reasonable cause252
18Interpretation – Internal aids Setting of the Act
18.1Interpretation – Sections and…254
PROVISO—FUNCTION AND INTERPRETATION
18.2Proviso255
18.2.1Proviso – Function256
18.2.2Proviso – An independent provision257
18.2.3“Provided further”258
EXPLANATION – FUNCTIONS AND INTERPRETATION
18.3Explanation259
18.3.1Explanation is not amendment provision260
18.3.2Explanations not a substantive provision260
18.3.3Explanation – Effect and intendment261
18.3.4Explanation – Construction262
EXCEPTION – INTERPRETATION
18.4Exception263
SCHEDULE INTERPRETATION
18.5Schedule263
PUNCTUATION – PURPOSE AND FUNCTION
18.6Punctuation266
18.6.1Comma267
18.6.2Semi-colon268
18.6.3Colon and dash269
18.5.4Full stop270
18.5.5Parentheses270
19Interpretation – Rule of Language
19.1Rules of Language271
RULE OF LANGUAGE – MANDATORY OR DIRECTORY
19.2‘May’ and ‘shall’ directory…271
19.2.1Simultaneous use of ‘May’ and…274
19.3Mandatory or directory depends…274
19.4Mandatory – Use of word ‘shall’…275
19.5“Shall” and “may” – Inter-changeable275
19.6Factors other than use of…276
19.7Negative or prohibitive word mandatory277
19.8Provisions for performance of…278
19.9Provision pertaining to avoidance…279
19.10Procedural rule not mandatory279
19.11Mode of performing a duty has…282
19.12Conditions of a provision should…282
19.13Whether all conditions mandatory283
19.14Prescription of time-frame for…284
19.15Requirement of filing declaration…285
19.16Rules are mandatory286
19.17Non-compliance of mandatory…286
RULE OF LANGUAGE – LEGAL FICTION
19.18Legal fiction287
19.19Legal fiction – strictly construed289
19.20Legal fiction – all facts on…290
19.21Legal fiction – casus omissus290
19.22Legal fiction – illustrative cases290
RULE OF LANGUAGE – RETROSPECTIVELY
19.23Retrospective operation292
19.24Retrospectivity, legislative…294
19.25Retrospectivity – legislative…294
19.26Retrospectivity-expressly…295
19.27Retrospectivity presumption against295
19.28Retrospective or prospective – Tests296
19.29Retrospectivity – law of procedure…297
19.30Procedural law and substantive law298
19.31Retrospectivity – Amending Acts299
19.32Retrospectivity – declaratory act300
19.33Retrospectivity – Clarificatory act302
19.34Clarificatory and declaratory…305
19.35Retrospectivity – repealing…305
19.36Implied repeal307
20Interpretation – External Aids
20.1External aids – Meaning309
20.2External aids – Dictionary Meaning309
20.2.1Dictionary meaning – Overriding…310
20.2.2Dictionary meaning – Sometimes diffused311
20.3External AID – Reference to…311
20.3.1External aids – References to…313
20.3.2Incorporation/reference of other Acts…314
20.4External aid – Reference to…315
20.5External aid – Reference to…315
20.6Words in popular sense316
20.7Words having scientific or…318
20.8General words318
20.9Words dealing with matters…318
20.10Words used in Income-tax Act319
20.11Words used in the schedule319
20.12‘Expression’, meaning of…321
20.13External aids – Process of legislation321
20.14External aids – Subsequent legislation322
20.15External aids – History of Legislation323
20.16External aids – Objects and Reasons325
20.17External aids – Speech of the Minister328
20.18External aids – Parliamentary Material329
20.19External aids – Law Commission Report330
20.20External aids construction – contemporanea expositio (the administrative)330
21Maxims and Proverbs
21.1Maxim – Statement of guiding332
21.2Maxim is empiric332
21.3Maxim or proverb – not unalterable334
21.4Maxims explained334

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